How Do Aches, Pain & Injuries Occur?

Cumulative Trauma Disorder

Most pain and injury whether it occurs in the workplace, the gym or on the sports field, is due to Cumulative Trauma Disorder. But what exactly is Cumulative Trauma Disorder?

Well, as it turns out many cases are not caused by actual trauma to the tissues, so it has been suggested that Cumulative Injury Disorder is a more accurate term.

Cumulative Injury Disorder is a group of injuries to muscles, tendons, bones, blood vessels, fascia and /or nerves. Cumulative Trauma Disorder can occur from:

– An acute Injury, (such as tackle in rugby or a road traffic collision)
– Repetitive Injury
– Constant Pressure/Tension Injury
– All these causes lead to the Cumulative Injury Cycle.

Acute Injury

In an Acute Injury, the muscles and fascia tear, which immediately results in inflammation, heat and pain to prevent further damage and to promote healing. The increase in white blood cells and Fibrinogen, initiates an adhesion process. If this is not treated, the cumulative injury cycle may be initiated.

Repetitive Motion Injury

Repetitive Motion Injury is related to a number of specific physical factors:

– Insult to the Tissues (I)
– Number of Repetitions (N)
– Force (or tension) of each repetition as a percentage of maximal muscular strength (F)
– Amplitude (size or distance) of each repetition (A)
– Relaxation Time between each repetition (R)


Vibration results in High N, Low A and low R. This is why tennis players use vibration dampners on their rackets and why Golfer’s wear gloves.

Poor Posture causes high Forces in the musculature over time. F is high, A is almost 0, and R is 0. The insult to the tissues is therefore high. This is why it is so common for desk bound workers to suffer from aches, pains and injury after sitting with poor posture for 8-10 hours a days

Any kind of constant pressure or tension (which would be the case with poor posture too), will decrease circulation and reduce cell recovery.

The Cumulative Injury Cycle 

The cycle of Cumulative Injury is defined by the following factors and their relationships. Each factor leads to the next one on the cycle.

Cumulative Injury Cycle

Weak and Tight Muscles

Repetitive over-use or chronic shortening (as in sitting for long periods) can cause muscles to tighten. This tightening of the muscle can cause weakening of the muscle and cause adjacent muscles to tighten too.

Friction- Pressure-Tension

Due to tight/weak muscles, the internal forces acting on the tissues increase. Friction, Pressure or Tension can be present and possibly all of them at the same time. If one of these pressure is high enough, an acute injury and inflammation can occur even without any external forces being applied. Again, this is why many desk bound workers experience pain.

When Friction- Pressure-Tension is severe enough it can lead to a Tear or Crush or Inflammation:

Tear or Crush

The disruption to the tissues can occur with sufficient force. This can be an external force acute injury or from a severely increased internal forces.


Inflammation occurs from the tissue injury and begins and an adhesion process, which then leads to weakening and tightening of the tissues and the cycle perpetuates if not treated effectively.

Decreased Circulation – Edema

The result of increased forces on the tissues is to decrease circulation. If pressure is applied over an area of lymphatic drainage, edema (fluid retention) will occur.


Cellular Hypoxia (lack of oxygen) from a lack of circulation causes fibrosis (hardening of the tissues) and adhesions to occur in and between tissues (often muscle adheres to muscle or nerve adheres to muscle).

Other factors:

Factors such as smoking and diabetes cause the circulation to be less affective and therefore help to perpetuate the cycle.

Poor diet and hydration levels can also cause a weakening of the tissues and increase susceptibility to trauma.

A lack of optimal sleep and sleep timing and overall rest will reduce healing time and time to recovery.

Solutions to Overcoming Aches, Pains and Injury

Active Release Techniques® (ART®):

Regular ART is advised for anyone in pain or anyone who wishes to stay out of pain or to optimize performance.

Whether you are a desk bound worker, a regular exerciser or both, ART® should be a regular treatment sought to overcome the Cumulative Injury Cycle, stay out of pain and to ensure optimal work or sports performance.

Corrective Exercise:

Corrective Exercise includes corrective stretching of all tight muscles and strengthening of weak muscles following a detailed biomechanical analysis by a skilled CHEK Practitioner.

Knowing which muscles to stretch and which muscles to strengthen and how to perform them accurately are crucial to reducing friction, pressure, tension, adhesions and fibrosis of the tissues

Nutrition & Lifestyle Factors:

Many people (and therapists) ignore this crucial aspect of overcoming pain. Areas that are essential to have optimized are:

– Breathing Mechanics
– Hydration
– Nutrition (Right for your Type)
– Sleep
– Detoxification
– Ergonomics

BodyCHEK Solutions

At BodyCHEK we have solutions that cover ALL aspects of injury rehabilitation and optimal performance. We offer programmes that cover ALL areas of injury rehabilitation in one holistic programme and programmes that focus on just one area at a time.

ART® Fast Start Programme:  

This programme is ideal for people who want to get out of pain fast or wish to maximise their work or sports performance. This programme can also be very effective for people who spend a lot of time seated or generally sedentary, which can cause poor posture and pain. Most soft tissue injuries are greatly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated by the end of the 3 treatments. This programme has a 2-week time limit to ensure an optimal and speedy result.

At the end of the package, you can then switch to an ART® maintenance program to ensure you stay out of pain and continue to perform at your potential.

The Rehab & Perform Programmes:

The Rehab & Perform Programmes are perfect for people in pain who want the fastest results possible, but also want to stay pain-free for life.

You’ll receive the best possible advice and feedback and hands-on support to ensure you stay on track with all aspects of your program. The program lasts for a minimum of 6 months and after that, you’ll switch to a maintenance program to ensure you stay pain-free. If at the end of 6 months you don’t wish to continue, you can cancel.

We ensure you not just get out of pain, but also help you condition your body, so you are able to do anything you wish to do without limitations whether it be exercise, play sport, play with your children or perform at your absolute best in your work.

Phase 1:

The initial focus is to teach you to do everything thing you need to get you out of pain, this may include improving posture, core stability and improving nutrition & lifestyle factors.

Phase 2:

The next phase is often getting you stronger building upon Phase 1, so your injury or pain will not return.

Phase 3:

Phase 3 includes functional strength and power (if needed) building upon Phases 1 & 2. This means you’ll be specifically strong in the movement patterns and energy systems you need so that you can thrive in your chosen pursuits, so your injury or pain will not return and you can live life to the full.

Health & Wellness Programmes:

The Health & Wellness Programmes are for people who need to focus on their nutrition and lifestyle and to improve their body shape, energy levels, digestive system or to help overcome a specific condition.

The program lasts for a minimum of 6 months and after that, you switch to a maintenance program to ensure you’re continued success and to prevent reverting back into old ways and a return of your symptoms. If at the end of 6 months if you don’t wish to continue, you can cancel.

Sessions are competed via video Skype® call (preferably) or telephone, so there is no need to travel, it saves time and is very convenient.

The process includes empowering you to take control of your own life and habits, so you are in control of your health and do not have to rely on any one else.

If you would like to secure a complimentary consultation at our London facility to discuss the best plan for you to get out of pain, please click this link >>> Secure Your Complimentary Get Out of Pain Consultation